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Fabricius, J.C., 1787. Mantissa Insectorum sistens eorum species nuper detectes adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus: 1: i-xx, 1-348

Fischer, W., G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds), 1981. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic (Fishing Areas 34,47 in part), vol. 5:pag.var.

Fischer, W., M.-L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds), 1987. Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Méditerranée et Mer Noire (Zone de Pêche 37), révision 1, vol.1:293-319, figs

Herbst, J.F.W., 1791-1796. Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse nebst einer systematischen Beschreibung ihrer verschiedenen Arten, 2:i-viii,1-226, pls 22-46

Longhurst, A.R., 1970. Crustacean resources. In: J.A. Gulland (ed.), The fish resources of the oceans. FAO Fisheries technical Paper, 97:252-305, 1 map

Palombi, A. and M. Santarelli, 1961. Gli animali commestibili dei mari d'Italia. Descrizione - biologia - pesca - valore economico e nomi italiani dialettali e stranieri dei pesci - tunicati - echinodermi - molluschi - crostacei ad uso dei pescatori di professione, dilettanti e subacquei (ed. 2): 1-xi,1-437 figs

Rolland, E., 1881. Les reptiles, les poissons, les mollusques, les crustacés et les insectes. Noms vulgaires, dictons, proverbes, légendes, contes et superstitions. Faune populaire de la France, 3:i-xv,1-354

Stephensen, K., 1923. Decapoda-Macrura excl. Sergestidae. Reports Danish oceanographical Expeditions 1908-10 Mediterranean, 2 (D3):1-85, figs 1-27, maps 1-8

Wulfen, F.X. de, 1791. Descriptiones zoologicae ad Adriatici littora maris concinnatae. Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germaniae Naturae Curiosorum, 8:235-359

Common spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas)