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(A. Milne Edwards, 1868)

Antennular plate with 2 widely separated large spines, with scattered small spinules behind these. Exopod of third maxilliped present. No pubescent area on the abdominal somites behind the transverse groove. Anterior margin of pleura of abdominal somite two without distinct teeth. Transverse groove of abdominal somites with straight margins, not crenulated. Transverse grooves of abdominal somites 2 to 4 join the groove along the anterior margin of the corresponding pleuron.
Colour: body, and especially the abdomen covered with numerous distinct round spots. Legs with light longitudinal streaks, which sometimes end just before a single pale spot. Antennulae with longitudinal streaks.

Type locality of P. longipes: "trouvée sur les côtes de I'île Zanzibar", through the lectotype selection by George and Holthuis (1965: 25); the paralectotype came from "Maurice" ( = Mauritius). Type material in MP, no longer extant in 1989.
Type locality of P. femoristriga: "Amboina", Moluccas, Indonesia. Holotype (or lectotype) female in ZMB, no. 1333, preserved in alcohol; could not be located in 1989.
Type locality of P. bispinosus: "Sandal Bay, Lifu, Loyalty Islands". Holotype male, ZMC, in alcohol, condition good.

Geographical Distribution:
Indo-West Pacific, region: East Africa to Japan and Polynesia. Two subspecies can be recognized: P. I. longipes is the western form occurring from East Africa to Thailand, Taiwan, the Philippines and Indonesia and the eastern subspecies P. I. femoristriga inhabiting Japan, the Moluccas, New Guinea, eastern Australia, New Caledonia and Polynesia. Intermediate forms have been observed, especially in the area of overlap between the two ranges.

Habitat and Biology:
The species lives in clear or slightly turbid water at depths of 1 to 18 m (also reported from 122 m), in rocky areas and coral reefs. , The animals are nocturnal and not gregarious.

Maximum total body length 30 cm, average length 20 to 25 cm. Maximum carapace length 12 cm, average carapace length 8 to 10 cm. The smallest ovigerous female has a total length of 14 cm.

Interest to Fisheries:
The species is caught throughout its range, mostly by hand when diving or with spears, also with traps, tangle nets and lobster pots. In Taiwan it is also known to be taken as by-catch by trawls. Fishing is of local interest only. The animals are sold fresh in the markets and directly to restaurants. The FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics reports for this species catches in Japan of 1083 tons in 1987 and 969 tons in 1988. As P. longipes is not particularly common in Japan, and as P. japonicus was not listed in those statistics, it is likely that the figures refer to the latter species or to both.

Longlegged spiny lobster (Panulirus longipes)