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Characteristics, distribution and ecology
Taxonomische classification
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(Allman, 1863)

Umbrella semi-globular [Bougainvillia muscus ]; mesogloea very thick, especially in apical region; velum narrow. The four radial canals and circular canal narrow. With short and broad manubrium, sometimes slightly pedunculate. Mouth simple, circular; perradial oral tentacles inserted distinctly above mouth rim, branching dichotomously 1-2 (rarely 3-6) times, and armed with terminal nematocyst clusters.
Four interradial gonads reaching perradii, globular in females, prolonged in males [B.muscus-male].
Four small, oval marginal tentacular bulbs each with a group of 4-9 (usually 3-5) long and solid tentacles of one kind; bulbs with black, round adaxial ocelli at the base of each tentacle.
Young specimens: B.muscus-young-habitus .
Umbrella 2-4 mm high and wide.

Manubrium and marginal tentacle bulbs dark reddish brown, crimson or yellowish, sometimes with greenish tinge [B.muscus-male-habitus ].

Ecology and depth range
Meropelagic; neritic. Hydroids produce medusae during spring, summer and autumn and medusae may be encountered a late as December.

Distribution in the North Sea
Throughout whole North Sea.

World distribution
North Atlantic Ocean including Mediterranean Sea; Arctic Ocean; E and W South Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans.

[After Russell, 1953a; Kramp, 1959; Bouillon, 1999]

Bougainvillia muscus